Ski Rule Book

 

Ski Rule Book

 

MAINE PRINCIPALS' ASSOCIATION

INTERSCHOLASTIC SKIING RULES

2013-2014


Maine Principals' Association
50 Industrial Drive
Augusta, ME 04338-2468

 

 

CODE OF ETHICS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES

The Code of Ethics for secondary school activities has been developed for the purpose of stating the behavioural expectations of all who are involved with (secondary) school activities programs.

Adherence to the Code is expected at all MPA sponsored or sanctioned activities. Reported consistent and/or flagrant violations of the Code may result in punitive action by the MPA Interscholastic Executive Committee if charges are substantiated at a hearing convened for that purpose.

In order to promote desirable behaviour and enhance the over-all quality of secondary school activities programs for which MPA has assumed responsibility, the following Code of Ethics is in effect:

 

It is the duty of all concerned with secondary school activities programs to...

1. Cultivate awareness that participation in high school activities is part of the total education experience. No one should either seek or expect academic privileges for the participants.

2. Emphasize sportsmanship, ethical conduct and fair play as they relate to the lifetime impact on the participants and spectators.

3. Develop an awareness and understanding of the rules and guidelines governing competition, and comply with them in all activities.

4. Recognize the purpose of activities in school programs is to develop and promote physical, mental, moral, social and emotional well-being of participants.

5. Avoid any practice or technique which endangers the present or future welfare of a participant.

6. Avoid practices that encourage students to specialize or that restrict them from participation in a variety of activities.

7. Refrain from making disparaging remarks to opponents, officials, coaches, or spectators.

8. Encourage the development of proper health habits and discourage the use of chemicals.

9. Exemplify self-control and accept adverse decisions without public display of emotion.

10. Encourage everyone to judge the success of the activities programs on the basis of the attitude of the participants and spectators, rather than on the basis of a win or loss.

Adopted by the MPA Membership: April 29, 1988; Revised: April 29, 1999

 

COACHES CODE OF ETHICS

National Federation of State High School Associations

The function of a coach is to educate students through participation in interscholastic competition. An interscholastic program should be designed to enhance academic achievement and should never interfere with opportunities for academic success. Each student-athlete should be treated as though he or she was the coaches’ own, and his or her welfare should be uppermost at all times. Accordingly, the following guidelines for coaches have been adopted by the NFCA Board of Directors.

The coach shall be aware that he or she has a tremendous influence, for either good or ill, on the education of the student-athlete and, thus, shall never place the value of winning above the value of instilling the highest ideals of character.

The coach shall uphold the honor and dignity of the professional. In all personal contact with student-athletes, officials, athletic directors, school administrators, the state high school athletic association, the media, and the public, the coach shall strive to set an example of the highest ethical and moral conduct.

The coach shall take an active role in the prevention of drug, alcohol, and tobacco abuse.

The coach shall avoid the use of alcohol and tobacco products when in contact with players.

The coach shall promote the entire interscholastic program of the school and direct his or her program in harmony with the total school program.

The coach shall master the contest rules and shall teach them to his or her team members. The coach shall not seek an advantage by circumvention of the spirit or letter of the rules.

The coach shall exert his or her influence to enhance sportsmanship by spectators, both directly and by working closely with cheerleaders, pep club sponsors, booster clubs, and administrators.

The coach shall respect and support contest officials. The coach shall not indulge in conduct which would incite players or spectators against the officials. Public criticism of officials or players is unethical.

Before and after contests, coaches for the competing teams should meet and exchange cordial greetings to set the correct tone for the event.

A coach shall not exert pressure on faculty members to give student-athletes special consideration.

A coach shall not scout opponents by any means other than those adopted by the league and/or state high school athletic association.

 

GENERAL RULES

RULE I - MEET OFFICIALS

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Chief of Competition

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Technical Delegate

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Race Committee

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Jury

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Referee

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Scorer

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Chief of Course

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Timers

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Starter

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Forerunners

LOCAL MEET COORDINATOR

Section 1 The Meet Coordinator shall be appointed by the MPA Ski Committee and shall be a member of the Race Committee. The local Meet Coordinator shall be responsible for all the technical aspects of the competition including the selection and preparation of the courses. He/she appoints all race officials and cares for all other matters not otherwise prescribed.

The Meet Coordinator shall conduct a meeting of representatives of all competing teams and individuals prior to the first event of the meet. This meeting is to be the official opening of the meet.

TECHNICAL DELEGATE

Section 2 Technical Delegates are assigned to each state championship ski meet by the MPA Ski Committee. The delegate will make decisions regarding safety, the conduct of individuals, and the postponement and cancellation of events. The Technical Delegate will interpret the nature of the rules and their application and the appropriateness of the behaviour of coaches, competitors and spectators, as well as serve as chairman of the Race Jury.

RACE COMMITTEE

Section 3 The Race Committee shall consist of five people and is the group to decide on matters of meet organization. The race committee is responsible for: appointing qualified adult gatekeepers, a starter and chief of timing. The Meet Coordinator shall serve as chairman of the Race Committee.

JURY

Section 4The Jury is responsible for all technical aspects of the race and shall decide on all issues that arise during the competition. In general, the Jury makes decisions on all questions not clarified by the rules. The Jury shall meet after each race in a designated place. Notice of the Jury meeting shall be given if a protest or other emergency matters arising out of the race have to be considered. Every member will be personally notified. No coach may serve on the jury if their athletes are participating in the competition.

Alpine Jury

Technical Delegate (Jury Chairperson) - Represents the Sanctioning Body (MPA) (One vote, if necessary, to break a tie) hired by the MPA.

Chief of Race - Appointed by the Mountain - Host Organization

Chief of Course - Represents the Host Organization (One vote)

Referee - Appointed by the Mountain (One vote - alpine only)

MPA Representative - Voting Member of the Jury (Committee Member)

Nordic Jury

Technical Delegate (Jury Chairperson) - Represents the Sanctioning Body (MPA) (One vote, if necessary, to break a tie) hired by the MPA.

Chief of Race - Appointed by the Race Venue- Host Organization

Chief of Course - Represents the Host Organization (One vote)

Referee - Appointed by the Race Venue (One vote - alpine only)

MPA Representative - Voting Member of the Jury (Committee Member)

REFEREE

Section 5 The TD shall be responsible for announcing or making known to the contestants before the meet starts any special conditions imposed by the Jury. In an Alpine event, the TD and/or the Referee must inspect the course immediately after it is set, and may direct the Course Setter (CS) to change the course by taking out or adding gates as necessary. The TD can designate substitutions for officials’ or personnel who have failed to appear.

In an Alpine event, the Referee shall disqualify any contestant who does not follow the racing rules or refuses to follow the rules of the officials; the Referee shall inspect the gatekeeper cards and shall post on the unofficial results board the names and numbers of all contestants who have committed a fault. The start of the protest time will concur with the posting of the last run of the event and run for the required time as stated.

The posting of unofficial results and any disqualifications in a Nordic event is done by a member of the Timing and Calculations crew.

SCORER

Section 6 It shall be the job of the MPA Ski Committee member(s) in attendance be the meet scorer and to record and complete all results and to determine team scores and Skimeisters.

GENERAL RULES
CHIEF OF COURSE

Section 7 Each event is assigned a Chief of Course who is responsible for the satisfactory conduct of the event to which he/she is assigned.

TIMERS

Section 8 The Chief Timer shall see that all necessary timing equipment is procured such as watches, radio or telephone instruments, and electronic timing. He/she shall determine and appoint such personnel to operate the above as he/she deems necessary such as timers, judge of finish, starters, radio and phone operators. He/she may act as one of the timers, or in the case of radio or telephone starting from the finish line; he/she may be the starter.

STARTER

Section 9 The Starter shall be responsible for the warning and start signals. He/she shall be responsible for determining false starts until the final start signal is given. He/she shall see that his/her watch and any watches of the assistants are all synchronized with the timers' watches before the start of the race as well as after.

FORERUNNERS

Section 10 Before the start of the first contestant in either alpine event, there shall be at least one, and not more than three, forerunners unless, because of circumstances, it shall be deemed necessary to use more. Like competitors, forerunners are expected to abide by all meet rules and regulations. For Nordic, at least two forerunners shall be used, if deemed necessary by the chief of course. The duties of the forerunners shall be to clear the course of spectators, check upon and alert course officials and determine that all direction and control flags are in position. The time of the forerunner may be taken solely to check upon the starting and timing procedures but in no case will the forerunners' time be made public nor is the forerunner to actually race the course in either of the alpine races. At least one post runner should close the course after the Nordic race. The Meet Coordinator or other members of the Jury shall designate the forerunners and post runners. No coach or competitor who has team members entered in an alpine event shall be allowed to forerun any part of the course.

 

 

 

RULE II - EVENTS, CONTESTANTS, CONDUCT, AND SEEDING

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Events

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Contestants

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Injury and Illness

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Conduct - Coaches and Competitors

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Use of Prohibited Substances

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>The Draw, Seeding, Race Numbers and Order

EVENTS

Section 1The events in a skiing championship event shall be: Giant Slalom, Slalom, 5 Km Freestyle and 5 Km Classical.

CONTESTANTS
Section 2 In order to participate in the state meet, a competitor must have competed in a minimum of one event of the discipline he/he is entered unless mitigated by the MPA Ski Committee due to weather related complications during the season. Medical appeal must be made to the committee chair two weeks in advance of the state meet. Medical documents must be supplied.

Section 3 A school may compete with up to 18 team members in a championship meet. Six competitors from a school may compete in each physical event, with the best four to count in the team scoring. Skiers may be entered as competitors for Skimeister if they are members of the school's slalom, giant slalom, freestyle and classical entries. (Note: A skier may be entered in a third and fourth event, for Skimeister only, if entered as a team member in two other events.  Schools may also add one additional skier (one male & one female) as skimeister only participants. Skiers entered in an event for Skimeister competition only shall be seeded last in that event. In order to be eligible for Skimeister, skiers must be designated as such on the entry form. Each Skimeister athlete must have competed in at least one event in each of the four disciplines once during the season.

 

GENERAL RULES
INJURY AND ILLNESS

Section 4 In case of injury or sickness to the contestant prior to the orientation meeting, a substitute may be made from the original duly entered list of team members. In case of injury or sickness after the orientation meeting, substitutions may be made upon certification of need by the Referee. Any substitution shall take the starting position of the competitor replaced. The running order of the team may not be changed, nor may any more than 18 skiers be used in the team competition during championship or regional meets.

CONDUCT- COACHES AND COMPETITORS

Section 5 All coaches must meet MPA Coaches' Eligibility Standards to be working with athletes at any MPA ski meets.

Section 6 All competitors and coaches are expected to conduct themselves in a respectful and sportsmanlike manner and to present a personal appearance that will reflect the highest credit upon the sport and their institutions. Swearing or other unsportsmanlike behaviour will cause contestants to be disqualified from the event they are, or have just competed, in and will result in the forfeiture of all points earned in the meet. Coaches and competitors who bring discredit to their school, the MPA, or the sport by failure to conduct themselves in a sportsmanlike way, shall be barred from further meet participation by the TD. This determination may not be appealed. If a coach is disqualified and there is no other qualified person to supervise the team, the team may not continue to participate in the meet. Unsportsmanlike activity by a coach or a spectating rostered athlete will result in fifty points being added to the final team score. School principals will receive written notification of any coach's or contestant's disqualification.

USE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, AND ILLEGAL DRUGS

Section 7 The use or possession of tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, or illegal drugs is prohibited at any MPA sponsored meets. Any violation will be cause for disqualification of the competitor from further meet participation by the TD. This determination may not be appealed. Any points scored or awards received by a disqualified competitor will be forfeited. School principals will receive written notification of any contestant's disqualification.

THE DRAW, SEEDING, RACE NUMBERS, AND ORDER

Section 8 The starting order of the members of each team shall be decided by the team's coach. Coaches shall submit their team's starting order to the Meet Coordinator as part of their entries. Coaches shall have the option of passing any rounds if the entry is short of maximum.

Section 9 The Meet Coordinator shall draw team groups. In the alpine events, each seeding group shall not exceed the number of teams entered. Only one team member per school will be seeded in each group. Individuals will be seeded the same as teams are seeded.

Section 10 One drawing shall be made for each event. Seeding will reverse for the second run. In Nordic each seed will be drawn separately (6 drawings).

Section 11 Race numbers will be assigned for each event to correspond with the individual's starting position. Bibs are to be worn over the outer garment from the time the event facility is available for inspection or practice until that event is over.

WAXING
Section 1 Private ski entities and ski businesses may not wax ski equipment at meets.

 

RULE III - TIMING AND SCORING

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Timing Personnel

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Scoring

TIMING PERSONNEL

Section 1 The Chief Timer, in cooperation with a sufficient number of timekeepers, the Starter, and necessary recorders, is responsible for correct timekeeping.

GENERAL RULES

Section 2 The assistant timekeepers shall inform their recorders of the starting number of each contestant and the time when they passed the finish line. There should be at least three timekeepers for every event, the Chief Timer and two assistants.

Section 3 The Recorder shall be responsible for recording the finishing time of each racer as given to them by the timer. In recording the information given to him/her, he/she shall repeat it to the timer in alpine events to avoid errors. He/she shall not give out any official results. Unofficial times shall be announced or posted at the scoreboard area away from the start or finish areas.

Section 4 The Starter and Assistant Starter shall be responsible for summoning the contestants in order to the starting line and in ample time for them to start at the listed time. They shall check off each contestant on the starting list as they start.

Section 5 The Start Referee shall be responsible to see that the Starter carries out his/her duties according to the rules and should take immediate action to rectify any discrepancies by the Starter, assistant starter, or contestants. He/she shall rule on false starts and recall of contestants. This job, and that of the starter and assistant starter, is often done by the same person.

Section 6 Electronic/digital stopwatches or electronic timing will be used for the timing of all events.

Section 7 When electronic timing is used, the contestant's time is to be the period between the breaking or making of the starting contact and the contact at the finish. The contact to be broken at the finish shall be placed at a height of 10 to 20 inches or 25 to 50cm above the ground. Hand timing must always be used in addition to electronic timing.

Section 8 When the electronic timing temporarily fails, the times recorded by hand shall be accepted and to those times shall be added or subtracted, as the case may be, a time equivalent to the average difference between the times recorded by electronic timing and by hand. If the electronic timing breaks down completely during the race, the times taken by hand throughout the entire race shall be valid.

Section 9 Times shall be recorded in all races to the nearest tenth of a second if timing is done by stopwatch. For Alpine races, if electronic timing is used, results will be reported to the nearest hundredth of a second. For Nordic races, if electronic timing is used, results will be recorded to the nearest tenth of a second.

SCORING

Section 10 Scoring in the alpine and cross-country events is by place points; i.e., one point for first place, two points for second place, etc.

Section 11 A team score is determined by the place of the team's first four finishers. (Example: If there is a tie for third, both skiers gets three points, there would be no fourth place, the next place would be fifth.) For purposes of team scoring, no skier will be removed from the finish order except those entered as "Skimeister only" in that event. Teams may never use more than six skiers to displace. If a team has fewer than four race finishers in an alpine or Nordic event, each non-finisher will be assessed points equal to the total number of finishers plus one. A team must have at least 3 non-disqualified finishers in order to be eligible for team awards.

Section 12 Scoring for the Skimeister shall be determined by the skier's own place points in slalom, giant slalom, freestyle, and classical races; i.e., skier finishing third gets three points, skier finishing tenth gets ten points.

 

 

 

 

GENERAL RULES
RULE IV - PROTESTS

Section 1 All protests must be submitted in writing by the coach. The protest must be accompanied by a $35 fee before the Jury of Appeals may meet. If the protest is upheld, the $35 fee will be returned to the school, if it is denied the fee remains with the MPA.

Section 2 No protest against the qualifications of a contestant to compete in a particular event, or against the conduct of a contestant in a particular event, shall be considered by the Race Jury unless reported in writing to the Referee within FIFTEEN MINUTES as described in Rule 1, Section 5. Disqualifications must be posted after each run. All athletes will be allowed a second run unless he/she did not finish the first run. The protest period starts with the unofficial posting of the results of the last run of the event and ends 15 minutes later. This means that if the boys ski first followed by the girls, the protest period will commence with the unofficial posting of the girls' last run results. Official results will not be made available until the protest period has been completed and no protests have been filed.

Section 3 Protests against another contestant or an official in the course of an event must be submitted in writing to a member of the Jury immediately, and in no case, later than FIFTEEN MINUTES after, the results of the event in question have been posted on the official notice board.

Section 4 Protests concerning an error in timing must be made in writing to the Referee or member of the Jury within FIFTEEN MINUTES after the official results have been posted on the official notice board.

Section 5 Contestants in an alpine race who desire to protest the decision of a gatekeeper shall submit a written protest through their coach within FIFTEEN MINUTES from the official posting of disqualifications.

Racers who did not finish and who were not awarded a provisional run will not get a second run.

The Race Jury shall, at the completion of the event, summon such officials as they deem necessary to consider any protest and to hear the evidence of any officials or witnesses who have witnessed the event in question. The burden of proof shall rest upon the contestant, and the gatekeeper's decision shall be accepted in the absence of weighty evidence that an error has, in point of fact, been committed. Deliberations will be made by the Jury in private. No video evidence will be used.

Section 6 No protest against disqualification by a race official shall be considered by the Jury unless the protest is made in writing to a member of the jury within FIFTEEN MINUTES of the UNOFFICIAL posting of results.

Section 7 A complaint based on an alleged error in calculation of the results shall be considered by the MPA representative if reported during the course of the meet. Such a protest made at a later date must be made by the Athletic Director of a competing school by Registered Mail to the MPA office within one month of the date of the race. If the mistake shall be proven, correct results shall be published and the awards redistributed as necessary.

Section 8 After the protest has been filed by the coach; individual contestants may appeal to the Race Jury in person or may be represented by their coach.

 

 

RULE V - EVENT OFFICIALS

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Chief of Course

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Chief of Gatekeepers

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Gatekeepers

CHIEF OF COURSE

Section 1 The Chief of Course for an alpine event is responsible for the preparation and maintenance of the course as decided upon by the Chief of Competition. He/she must be well acquainted with the snow conditions of the area so that he/she can make the right decision in case of snowfall or bad weather conditions. The Chief of Course shall have charge of all persons connected with the course. He/she shall be responsible for laying out the course and for the conditions of the course as selected. Prior to the race, he/she may set control gates at such points as necessary for safety, or may warn competitors by the use of flags that such dangers as small pieces of trees, hidden rocks, or stumps are present. The Chief of Course, along with the Meet Coordinator, is responsible for the safety precautions of the course and for the location and placement of all safety fencing or netting (A and/or B). Start and finish corrals are part of this responsibility and must be inspected and approved by the TD.

COURSE CREW (CC)

These people are on skis sweeping the course periodically while the competition continues. The CC should be made up of members of the local host mountain crew who are familiar with the location of course access, equipment, spare gates, rakes, drills, gate wrenches, etc. Their presence frees up the Gatekeepers to better perform their job of appropriately marking their card.

ALPINE EVENTS

Section 2 While the Chief of Course may be solely responsible for the setting of controls and directional flags on the course, these duties may also be assigned to an official known as the Course Setter.

CHIEF OF GATEKEEPERS

Section 3 The Chief of Gatekeepers organizes, directs, and controls the gatekeepers. He/she shall place each gatekeeper in position and designate the gates which he/she is to tend. At the end of each run, he/she shall collect the gatekeepers' cards and transmit them to the Referee with all possible haste.

GATEKEEPERS

Section 4 A gatekeeper must be an adult and have complete knowledge of the rules for his event. Their judgement shall always be clear and impartial, their behaviour calm, vigilant, and careful. Gatekeepers should wear special bibs for proper and quick identification. Gatekeepers should be in position 30 minutes prior to the scheduled start of the race.

Section 5 Gatekeepers' duties include:

A. Watching passage through gates. A gate has been passed correctly when both feet and ski tips have passed the turning pole on the same side, following the natural race line of the slalom.

In the event that a competitor removes a pole from its vertical position before both the competitor's ski tips and both feet have passed the gate line, the ski tips and feet must still pass the original gate line (marking in the snow).

B. Control card and course repair. After a contestant passes the gate, the gatekeeper, before doing anything else, must mark the control card. In case of disqualification, the gatekeeper must mark the card and draw a diagram showing how the skier disqualified.

C. Disqualifying. The gatekeeper shall disqualify a competitor only when they are absolutely convinced that a mistake has been made. In case of a protest, they must be able to explain clearly and unequivocally how the fault occurred. The gatekeeper may even ask for the competition to be interrupted for a short time in order to check the tracks on the course or marks on the poles. However, the opinion of the public must not influence a gatekeeper's judgment, nor shall they accept the opinion of any witnesses who have not seen the event from the immediate proximity, even if they are experts. The jury may use all evidence deemed appropriate, including evidence of other meet officials, but excluding the use of video evidence.

D. Watching for obstructions. The gatekeeper must carefully watch that the contestants are not obstructed by third persons and that they, as well as the gatekeeper, stand well out of the way.

Should an obstruction occur, the gatekeeper should note the exact circumstances on their card and explain them to the Referee who can then authorize another run.

Equipment lost on the course should be moved outside of the next skier’s line.

E. Not revealing decisions. The gatekeeper may not reveal any information regarding disqualifications before the end of the race.

F. Gatekeeper Instructions. During the race, a gatekeeper must respond to competitors' questions with the commands "GO" or "BACK". The gatekeeper should offer directions when appropriate.

The contestant has the responsibility for knowing the course and requesting instructions.

ALPINE EVENTS

G. Conclusion of runs. At the conclusion of each run, the gatekeeper shall remain in position and the Chief Gatekeeper shall collect all signed gatekeeper cards and give the disqualifications to the Referee for posting. If faults are noted, the gatekeeper shall report to the finish area until released by the Referee. When they are released from duty, it is helpful if they bring down or set aside the poles.

H. Slalom race control. A gatekeeper for a slalom race shall control not more than four gates, if possible. Their duties begin when the contestant passes through the first of the gates they control.

 

 

RULE VI - PREPARATION FOR ALPINE EVENTS

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Events

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Course Setting Guidelines

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Course Safety Guidelines

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Starting Area Guidelines

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Finish Area Guidelines

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Giant Slalom

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Slalom

EVENTS

Alpine events include the Giant Slalom and Slalom races.

COURSE SETTING GUIDELINES

Section 1 The alpine events in an interscholastic ski meet are giant slalom and slalom. The sites for these events must be prepared prior to the meet.

Interscholastic slalom and giant slalom courses must be kept simple and consistent with the accepted norm for alpine courses. It is best to set courses using as many open gates as possible. When closed gates, or combinations, are used, they must be set to direct the racer "over the top". This tends to eliminate the chance of running gates backward and becoming confused or lost in a course. All courses should be set so that the great majority of racers can complete the course without falls or undue confusion. Courses should have a smooth, natural flow and rhythm. In Slalom and Giant Slalom competition an under gate, used alone and not in combination, is permissible, but it too should conform to the requirements of a smooth, natural flow and rhythm. If a rhythm change is necessary due to a terrain change, the transition should be a gradual one. All gates in a slalom course should require a turn, except the last three gates, which should direct the skier to the finish.

The use of breakaway gates in alpine events is required at the State Meet. Generally, the "turning pole" is the breakaway. The use of electronic timing is highly recommended.

The Meet Coordinator should notify all coaches where the official scoreboard is located with posted inspection time, start time, and disqualifications.

COURSE SAFETY GUIDELINES

Section 2 In order to ensure proper safety measures, the following regulations shall be followed when selecting and setting the courses:

A. The course must be cleared of all rocks, stumps, and other obstacles.

B. The course must not include bumps that throw contestants high into the air.

C. On the outside of fast turns there must be plenty of room for a contestant to fall clear of any obstructions.

D. No artificial obstacles may be built in.

E. That part of the course where control gates are placed and where competitors have to turn should be prepared with hard firmly packed snow.

F. The lift tower must be padded and/or fenced.

ALPINE EVENTS


A race should be held on hard snow. The snow should, if possible, be so hard that no holes are made when contestants fall. If snow falls during the race, the Chief of Course shall ensure that the newly fallen snow be packed or swept from time to time. Course maintenance should be done continuously and indiscriminately throughout an alpine race. Recommended as a snow additive to lower the freezing point and harden the snow is ammonium chloride for above freezing conditions and sodium chloride (rock salt) for below freezing conditions. These preparations should be added to the snow on the course at least 30 minutes before race time.

STARTING AREA GUIDELINES


Section 3 The start area should be closed off so that only the starting racer and officials concerned with the start are located there. The start gate must consist of two posts 24 inches/60cm apart and 24 inches/60cm above the snow.

The start area should be level and large enough so that the racer can comfortably position themselves with the toes of the boots up to the imaginary line between the posts of the start gate and no further back than 5 feet or 1.5m from the line. No forward movement of the feet is allowed previous to "go" or "hut". No running start is allowed.

The start shall be prepared in such a way that competitors can stand relaxed on the starting line, and can quickly reach full speed after leaving the start.

A racer is on course and his time begins when he passes through the starting gate.

All times will be reported to the nearest tenth of a second.

FINISH AREA GUIDELINES

Section 4 The finish area must be plainly visible to the racer approaching the finish. It must be 10 meters wide, with a gently sloped smooth outrun. It must be especially well prepared and smoothly packed to make stopping easy. In marking the course, particular attention should be paid to directing competitors across the finish on a natural line adapted to the terrain. The first and last gate of any alpine course other than the start and the finish must be an open gate leading to this natural line.

Fencing, soft straw, or hay bales and other appropriate safety measures should be used to prevent any possibility of a collision with the finish structures, spectators, or other skiers. For racers who have finished their runs, a special area separated from the actual finish might be provided, where results can be seen or obtained. Only race officials should be allowed in the finish area.

Section 5 The finish line is marked by poles, which are connected with a banner with the sign "Finish" whenever possible. More often, a system of three slalom poles on each end of the finish line is used where they are arranged in a 10 inch or 25cm triangle with no banner connecting them. In determining the width of the finish, the speed of the racers, the terrain, and the snow conditions must be considered. As a rule, the width of the finish gate may not be less than 30 feet or 10m. The finish line is marked by soft poles or flex gates with vertical banners on each side indicating, "FINISH" whenever possible. There should be nothing solid used at the finish other than components of the timing lights. These can be protected with wedge bags, but not by unprotected hay bales. The use of just three flex gates on each side of the 10 meter finish line is also acceptable. No banners or other connections shall be placed or suspended over the finish line.

GIANT SLALOM

Section 6 The giant slalom course should utilize as much terrain as possible and should take from 50-80 seconds in total time. If a giant slalom run is less than 50 seconds, two runs are required. In the event of a second run in championship competition, the team order will be reversed but the individual running orders will remain the same. The two runs may be made on the same or separate courses.

Section 7 Setting of the giant slalom gates:

A. The poles are the same as those used for slalom except that there are four poles per gate. It is recommended that rectangular panels 75cm wide and 50cm high be stretched between the poles in such a manner that the lower edge of the panel is about one meter above the snow. If it is not possible to have these panels, then all four poles of the gate should be the same color.

ALPINE EVENTS

B. The gates will be red and blue. Consecutive gates must have alternating colors.

C. The position of the poles must be marked on the snow to ensure exact replacement in case they are knocked down.

D. The gates must be 13 feet or 4m and, at most, 26 feet or 8m wide. The distance between the turning poles of two successive gates must not be less than 32 feet or 10m.

E. It is recommended that the number of gates in giant slalom be 15% of the vertical drop of the course in meters plus or minus five gates.

F. The final gate will be at least 15 meters from the finish line.

G. The course will be reset between gender races. (Boys and girls should not be using the same course.)

SLALOM

Section 8 A slalom course should take from 50-80 seconds in total time. Slaloms are usually set up to consist of two runs. In any regional or championship event having a second run, the team order is reversed but the individual running orders remain the same. The two runs may be made on the same or separate courses.

Section 9 A slalom gate shall consist of round poles of alternating colors, approximately one to one-and-one-half inches in diameter and high enough to appear six feet above the snow. The poles shall not be more than two inches in diameter at the base. For State Meets, breakaways should be used for turning gates and bamboo may be used for the others. The poles may carry a 12 inch or 30.5cm minimum square flag of the same color. Visible dye shall be applied to the snow at the base of each pole to ensure exact replacement in case it is knocked down. If a course has been changed for a second run, a different color dye should be used.

Section 10 The gates on the slalom course shall be from 13 feet or 4m to 19 feet or 6m wide, and shall be no more than 15 meters from turning pole to turning pole. In a hairpin, flush, or other combinations, the distance between the two vertical poles nearest each other from one gate to the next must be at least 30 inches or 0.75m apart and not more than 50 feet or 15m apart. There should be no more than a 13 to 16 foot or 4 to 5m vertical drop from one gate to the next. The first three gates and the last three gates in any slalom should be open gates. The final gates must be no closer than ten meters from the finish line and lead the racer on a line through the center at the finish gate.

 

 

 

RULE VII - ALPINE COMPETITION

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Successful Completion of Course

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Helmets

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Training on Course

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Wearing of Bibs

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Forerunners

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Disqualifications

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Obstruction

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Reruns

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Alpine Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Early Alpine Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Late Alpine Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Missed Alpine Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Finish Procedure

SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF COURSE

Section 1 The gate line in single pole Slalom where the outside pole has been removed is the imaginary shortest line from the turning pole where the fault occurred to the turning pole immediately above. Where there is no outside pole both feet and ski tips must have passed the turning pole on the same side following the natural race line of the slalom. The natural race line is an imaginary line from turning pole to turning pole, which the racer has to cross. If the racer has not correctly passed the natural race line, then he/she has to climb back up and pass around the missed turning pole.

HELMETS

Section 2 Helmets must be worn for the slalom and giant slalom races. The protective headgear shall cover the forehead, temples, and complete skull and be made of shock-absorbent material of sufficient thickness to provide the individual with adequate protection. Undamaged downhill or Super GS helmets will be required.

BINDING LIFTERS

Section 3 The maximum lift will be 55 mm measured from the base of the ski to the top of the surface of the binding heal plate. (See Rule 4, Section 2)

ALPINE EVENTS
TRAINING ON COURSE (SHADOWING)

Section 4 Training on a course is defined as actually skiing the course in whole or by sections. Contestants shall not be allowed, under penalty of disqualification, to train on the course. Contestants may, however, inspect the course by "side-slipping down" the outside of the course or by walking up the course through the gates with their skis on and wearing their start numbers, visible to the official, as in the race. Shadowing-skiing sections of the course to simulate the course shall result in disqualification. The methods of inspection can only be authorized by the Race Jury. This decision must be made available to all coaches and will be disseminated at the Team Leaders' Meeting held prior to each alpine event. Each team must have representation at the Team Leaders' Meetings.

Section 5 All control gates shall be placed in final position at least one hour before the start, for the first event of the day, or one-half hour before the start for the second or any succeeding race of the day. The competitors shall be permitted to examine the course after it is finally prepared. During course inspection, competitors are not allowed to practice a turn parallel to or similar to any turn required by the course under penalty of disqualification.

WEARING OF BIBS

Section 6 Racing bibs must be worn outside and be clearly visible with numbers showing at all times during course inspection and until the end of the race. (With the approval of the host site, correctly marked school bibs may be worn.)

FORERUNNERS

Section 7 Prior to the start of competition, the Race Committee shall supply experienced, adequately equipped forerunners. Times shall not be announced, but may be recorded. No more than three (3) forerunners will be allowed unless problems with the weather or snow conditions warrant more. This decision would be made by the Race Jury.

DISQUALIFICATIONS

Section 8 A giant slalom and/or slalom competitor shall be disqualified if he/she:

A. enters a race under false pretences,

B. trains on a closed course or changes or improves a course in any way,

C. makes a false start,

D. fails to complete the course on two skis unless one is lost no higher than two gates above the finish line,

E. receives help of any kind unless he/she has tried to avoid it,

F. if upon being overtaken, does not give way at the first demand,

G. fails to pass through all gates as required,

H. does not properly wear his/her official start number or alters it in any way,

I. interrupts or disturbs another competitor during his/her run,

J. fails to cross the finish line with both feet,

K. deliberately handles a pole to aid progress or alters the position of the pole in any way.

L. fails to follow proper procedure during course inspection,

M. displays any unsportsmanlike conduct.

OBSTRUCTION

Section 9 If there is any obstruction which in the mind of the racer warrants a rerun while he/she is on the course, he/she must IMMEDIATELY ski off the course and go directly to the finish area and make an appeal to a member of the Jury. The member of the Jury shall grant a provisional rerun. The rerun should be taken as soon as the racer gets back to the start area. If a racer had already been disqualified before the incident which led to the awarding of a rerun, the rerun will not be counted. Whether a rerun is provisional or not, it must be counted even if it is slower than the run for which a rerun was claimed. Moving a competitor's equipment for safety reasons will not constitute grounds for a rerun.

ALPINE EVENTS
RERUNS

Section 10 A racer in giant slalom or slalom may appeal to the Referee or another member of the Race Jury for a rerun if any of the following incidents have hindered his/her run:

A. Obstruction of the course by an official or spectator.

B. Obstruction of the course by an animal.

C. Obstruction of the course by a racer who has fallen and has not cleared the course on time.

D. Objects on the course such as ski poles abandoned by a racer who has fallen.

E. First aid measures which interfere with the racer.

F. Absence of a gate knocked down by a preceding racer, wind, etc. and not replaced in time.

G. Any other similar occurrence outside the racer's control which slowed him/her down or lengthened the course, thus, significantly influencing his/her time.

H. Failure of timing.

ALPINE START

Section 11 In alpine events, a starting racer must stick his/her poles into the snow in front of the start line or wand or where indicated by the Starter and may start only with the help of the ski poles. Pushing off from the starting posts, kick boards or the use of other aids is forbidden. No one is allowed on these starting areas except the starting personnel and the starting racer.

Section 12 As soon as the Starter has received the order for the next start, the Starter gives the racer the warning "TEN SECONDS" and five seconds later counts "5-4-3-2-1" followed by the start command "GO". The racer must start within 3 seconds before or after the start command "GO".

EARLY ALPINE START

Section 13 If the racer starts more than 3 seconds before "GO" they will be disqualified unless they return and pass through the start gate with both feet when summoned "BACK" by the Starter. The Starter must call "BACK" to the racer. Their time starts when they first pass through the start and continues until they finish their run or drop out. The Start Referee informs the Referee of the start numbers and names of the racers who made early starts and/or did not return to the start when summoned.

LATE ALPINE START

Section 14 If a competitor does not start within 3 seconds after the start command "GO", the Starter shall open the start wand and inform the competitor that their time has started. Their time shall continue until they finish or drop out of their run. A competitor who starts late must not interfere with the start of other competitors.

MISSED ALPINE START

Section 15 In alpine events, a competitor who is not ready to start at the time indicated by the Starter will start at the end of the run. The Referee or the starter may excuse such a delay if, in his/her opinion, the delay was justified.

FINISH PROCEDURE

Section 16 In determining the finish with electronic timing, the time is taken when a competitor crosses the line between the finishing posts with any part of his/her body or equipment and so breaks the contact. The time can, therefore, be taken for a fall at the finish before both of the competitor's feet have crossed the line between the finishing posts. However, for this time to be valid, the competitor must immediately cross the line between the posts with both feet. With hand timing, the time is taken when the first foot crosses the finish line. Both feet must eventually cross the line. The Finish Judge is responsible for all such decisions.
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NORDIC EVENTS

 

RULE VIII - EVENT OFFICIALS

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Chief of Course

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Controllers

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Start and Finish Judges

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Chief of Timekeeping

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Scorer

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Starter

CHIEF OF COURSE

Section 1 The Nordic Chief of Course is responsible for the selection of the course and for the exact measurement and preparation of the same. He/she is also responsible for the prompt and correct preparation and marking of the course and for suitable placing of controls. The main task of the Chief of Nordic Course both before and during the race, especially if the weather and snow conditions are bad, is to use the course preparation group and forerunners to ensure that the course is in the best possible condition during the whole race. He/she is responsible for seeing that enough forerunners are available. In collaboration with the Starter, he/she should send a post runner around the course to close it after the last competitor.

Section 2 The Chief of Course shall assign the controllers to the places chosen for them by the Chief of Course and make sure that the controllers know their duties.

CONTROLLERS

Section 3 Every control is manned by at least one person who will note all competitors who pass through his control. If a competitor leaves the marked course, this must be clearly marked on the controller's card. After the course closers have passed, the controllers must immediately hand over the control cards to the Chief of Course and he/she, in turn, to the Race Secretary.

 

START AND FINISH JUDGES

Section 4 The Start Judge and Finish Judge work under the Chief of Course and are responsible for the preparation and control of the start and finish areas. When interval starting is employed, the Finish Judge shall make out a list stating the order in which each contestant passed the finish line.

CHIEF OF TIMEKEEPING

Section 5 The Chief of Timekeeping is responsible for the direction and coordination of the officials working in the finish area. Under his/her supervision are the Starter, Finish Referee, Finish Controller, and Timekeepers.

In Nordic events, electronic timing will be the primary method of timing and hand-held will be backup. The use of watches, one held by the Starter and others by the Timers, with all watches being synchronized before the start of the race, will be compared afterward.

The racers are started by the Starter's watch in accordance with the time shown on the Starting List and timed at the Finish Line by the Timer's watch with the contestant's time being the difference between the time shown for his/her departure on the official Starting List and his/her recorded time of finish. Reserve watches shall always be used by all parties to preclude failure.

SCORER

Section 6 The Scorer is responsible for quick and correct calculations.

STARTER

Section 7 The Nordic Starter must ensure that the competitors start at the correct time in the order of their numbers. An assistant, placed a few meters beyond the start line, may act on the instructions of the Starter if a competitor makes a false start.

 

 

NORDIC EVENTS
RULE IX - PREPARATION FOR NORDIC EVENTS

Ski Waxing -- Only coaches meeting MPA Coaches' Eligibility Standards, parents, and athletes may wax skis at meets.

Two (2) MPA eligible coaches will be presented bibs for course access. Coaches with bibs will be allowed to run on the side of the course with their athletes for up to 30 meters.

EVENTS

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Events

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Course Setting Guidelines

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Start and Finish Area Guidelines

Nordic events include a 5 Km Freestyle and a 5 Km Classical Race. The sites for these events must be prepared prior to the meet.

COURSE SETTING GUIDELINES

Section 1 A Nordic course should be laid out so as to be a technical, tactical, and physical test of the racers' qualifications and should adhere to guidelines in appendix. The course should be laid out as naturally as possible varying height, climbs, flat, and downhill sections to avoid any monotony and should be a minimum of 20 ft. or 7m in width in freestyle races and 15 ft. or 5m in width in classical races. Where possible, the course should be laid out through woodland. The first and last 200m should be relatively flat and straight. The most strenuous climbs should not come in the first two kilometers.

Rhythm should be broken as little as possible by sudden or sharp changes in direction or by steep climbs which force the competitors to herringbone. The downhill sections should be laid out so that they can be negotiated without danger, even on a particularly fast or icy track. The changes of direction should occur before, rather than at, the end of downhill sections. In principle, the Nordic course should be 1/3 uphill and 1/3 downhill.

Section 2 The marking of the course must be done in the direction of the race, with boards, arrows, flags, or marking tape. The marking of the course must be so clear that the competitor is never in doubt where the track goes.

Section 3 The course must be prepared before winter so that it can be raced later, without danger, with very little snow.

Section 4 In the winter, the course must be completely prepared with packed track and poling area. If possible, it should be prepared by dragging or rolling the trail mechanically and then setting tracks with a track sled. Tracks for skis and poles must be hard enough to allow a racing tempo and good downhill speed. The same conditions must be ensured for all competitors during the race. To achieve this while it is snowing or blowing hard, forerunners should be sent around continuously to keep the course open. Tracks may be set to allow for classical techniques during the freestyle.

Section 5 In Classical races, the dividing wall of snow between the ski tracks should be about 6 inches or 12-15cm wide. At changes of direction, mechanical track-making may be discontinued and racers' skating tracks allowed to develop on the turns. In special cases on downhill sections, the turns may be prepared without tracks.

Section 6 At the start and finish area there should be a scoreboard for unofficial results.

START AND FINISH AREA GUIDELINES

Section 7 The vertical poles determine the definite start and finish line. When electronic timing is used, the starting gate should be situated on the starting line and the photocells on the finish line. The start and finish should normally be on the same level and near at hand to each other.

The area should be large enough to accommodate all necessary technical equipment and for the start and finish tracks. The finish should be a large, flat area. The finish area should be fenced or roped off behind the finish line for a sufficient length and breadth that the competitors can be properly looked after. The timekeeper's area should be protected from competitors, press, and public.

The last straight area of approximately 100 meters will be the finish zone. The beginning of this zone must be clearly marked with a colored line. This zone is normally separated into three (3) lanes with set tracks for classical skiing with set tracks. For free technique skiing there are no tracks in the finish zone. Each lane is a minimum of three (3) meters wide so the finish line itself must be a minimum of nine (9) meters. These lanes must be clearly marked and highly visible but must not interfere with the skis.

 

 

NORDIC EVENTS

RULE X - NORDIC COMPETITION

NORDIC START

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Nordic Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Early Nordic Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Late Nordic Start

<![if !supportLists]>·   <![endif]>Successful Completion of Course

Section 1 The regular interval start shall be employed in all Nordic races. As a rule, racers start at equal intervals of 15 or 30 seconds. There may be two racers starting at the same time. Ten seconds before the start, the Starter will give the racer a warning "TEN SECONDS". Five seconds before the start the starter shall count "5-4-3-2-1" followed by the start command "GO". The starter will let the racer see the start watch if asked. In all cases the racer must start on the start command "GO".

If electronic timing is used, the competitor may start any time between three seconds before and three seconds after the start signal. If he/she starts more than three seconds before the start signal, it is a false start and he/she must be recalled and pass an extension of the start line outside the electric starting gate. If he/she starts more than three seconds late, the start list time will count. In this case, the starter opens the start gate wand at the count of three. With electronic timing, an audible electric start signal will be given simultaneously with the command to start. The start clock must be placed so that the competitor can see it clearly.

EARLY NORDIC START

Section 2 A competitor who crosses the line early is disqualified for a false start unless they return to the start line after being called "BACK" by the Starter. The Starter must call "BACK" to the competitor. The racers time starts on the "GO" command and continues until they finish or drop out of the race. The Starter informs the Referee of the start numbers and names of racers who made a false start and/or did not start or restart.

LATE NORDIC START

Section 3 In Nordic events the delayed racer starts in the half interval between two successive racers, but if the racer and the Starter agree, they may start at the normal interval at the end of the group. If the racer does not start when scheduled, and this lateness is not justified, they may be allowed to start directly after the next racer scheduled, with their original start time. The Starter shall make all decisions in cases of a delayed start. If the delay is reasonable, the racer should have a provisional start.

SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF COURSE

Section 4

A. The competitors must follow the flagged or indicated track from the start and pass through all controls.

B. The help of race markers along the course is not allowed.

C. During the race, without outside assistance, both poles may be exchanged, but only one ski.

D. A racer may wax his/her skis during the race but without assistance from any other person. He/she has the right, however, to make use of a blow torch and wax provided by other persons along the course.

E. Except in the last 100 meters, a competitor who is overtaken by another racer must give way at the first demand, even if the course has two tracks. The passing skier must yell "track" well in advance to allow the skier being overtaken to react.

F. The entire course must be completed on skis.

G. In classical events, no skating is allowed except skate turns and when changing tracks, in which case the competitor is allowed one skate out and one skate back in. A skier will be disqualified if he/she (a) obviously ignores a stop skating warning of an official or (b) he/she receives a second stop skating warning by an official.

H. A competitor will be disqualified for unsportsmanlike conduct.


NORDIC EVENTS

APPENDIX

Nordic Specifications:

The USSA Rules suggest the following guidelines for junior national races in terms of uphill climbs:

Race length 5km 7.5km

Highest to lowest point 100m 125m

Maximum continuous climb 50m* 60m

Total Climb 120-200m 175-275m

Definitions

Climb: Increase in altitude.

Break: Downhill grade which allows recovery of heart rate. Length of break is measured along the trail, not in altitude.

* Point of clarification - A skier will not be asked to make a continuous climb of more than 50m without a 100m or more break.

2013-2014 Ski Committee

Ted Hall, Chair, Principal, Yarmouth High School
Thomas Plourde, Principal, Spruce Mountain High School

Keith Morin, Principal, Winthrop High School
Scott Walker, Athletic Administrator, Morse High School
Mark White, Athletic Administrator, Presque Isle High School
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Bob Morse, Liaison, Yarmouth High School
Buzz Bean, Liaison, Mt. Abram High School

The Maine Principals' Association and its Ski Committee would like to express their appreciation to Mt. Abram, Sunday River, Shawnee Peak, Black Mountain, Rangeley Trails Center and Sugarloaf Outdoor Center for their support. They have enabled Maine high school athletes to enjoy a unique memorable experience.

Thank you!